Category: pxots

Zanzibar hold Kenya, progress to CECAFA semis

first_img0Shares0000Harambee Stars winger Ovella Ochieng vies for the ball with Zanzibar’s Issa Hidari during a CECAFA Senior Challenge Cup match at the Kenyatta Stadium in Machakos on December 9, 2017. PHOTO/Raymond MakhayaMACHAKOS, Kenya, Dec 9- Kenya’s Harambee Stars are faced with a must win tie against Tanzania on Monday if they are to retain their hopes of making it into the semi-finals of the CECAFA Senior Challenge Cup after being held to a 0-0 draw by Zanzibar in Machakos on Saturday.Zanzibar became the first team to book a semi-final ticket after the draw. The result takes the islanders to seven points with one group match left, while Kenya remain second with five. Zanzibar tackle Libya in the final match with the North Africans also having an opportunity to progress to the semis.  If they win against Zanzibar and Tanzania beats Kenya, then Libya and Zanzibar will progress to the last four while Kenya will be dumped out.It was another frustrating afternoon for head coach Paul Put whose boys failed to score for a second consecutive match. They have only scored one goal from open play in three matches, a huge concern for the Belgian tactician.Put made two changes to his squad, the injured Massoud Juma missing out and his place taken up by Kepha Aswani. Ovella Ochieng who came up in the second half against Libya on Thursday started ahead of Chris Oduor.The changes saw Kenya revert to the system it used against Rwanda playing with a target-man upfront supported by three men, two with speed out wide.The speed of Ochieng on the right and George ‘Blackberry’ Odhiambo on the left was the masterstroke Kenya needed to open up the Zanzibar defense.In the fifth minute, Stars had the first opportunity at goal when Wesley Onguso’s long throw from the left dropped down on Aswani’s feet, but the striker’s shot at goal was blocked for a corner.Harambee Stars winger Ovella Ochieng and defender Jockins Atudo fly in for a header during a CECAFA Senior Challenge Cup match against Zanzibar at the Kenyatta Stadium in Machakos on December 9, 2017. PHOTO/Raymond MakhayaKenya’s attack majored on the speed on the width and set pieces, of which throw-ins counted for much, Onguso’s prowess at swinging in the long throws exploited to the maximum. However, none of those could open up for a goal.In the 23rd minute Aswani came close again, this time rising in the midst of Zanzibar markers to head an Ovella corner, but the effort went over. Two minutes later, Jockins Atudo had a similar effort from a Patillah Omotto cross go over.As the game progressed, so did Zanzibar get into the match. Abdul Aziz Makame and Feisal Salum Abdallah’s partnership at the heart of midfield once again was Zanzibar’s key but the final ball when it mattered most never came through for them.In the 32nd minute, Aswani broke away to rush to an Omotto long pass, but he was pulled down with goal in sight at the edge of the box by Abdallah Salum Kheri.From the resultant set-piece, Omotto’s effort was saved by the keeper with the rebound falling on his path again, but his low shot hit the side-netting.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

Coup leaders given rebuke in Thai vote

first_imgBANGKOK, Thailand – Loyalists of former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra won nearly half the seats in Thailand’s parliamentary elections Sunday in a striking rebuke to the generals who forced the billionaire populist from power in 2006. The first vote since the coup appeared to be a recipe for continuing political instability: The failure of the pro-Thaksin People’s Power Party to capture an absolute majority in the 480-seat lower house of parliament opens the way for his opponents to form a government despite the PPP’s substantial mandate. With more than 95 percent of the vote counted, the People’s Power Party – established after Thaksin’s Thai Rak Thai Party was disbanded by court order earlier this year – had won 228 seats, according to the state Election Commission. Complete results were due Monday. “I would like to call for all political parties to join us in forming a strong government,” PPP leader Samak Sundaravej said at a news conference. “I will certainly be the prime minister.” 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORECoach Doc Rivers a “fan” from way back of Jazz’s Jordan ClarksonHe said Thaksin, who was in Hong Kong, had telephoned to offer his congratulations after hearing the results. The second-place Democrat Party took 165 seats. The PPP got most of its support from the rural north and northeast, where Thaksin’s programs, including universal heath care and generous village development funds, won a hard-core following. The Democrats ran strongest in Bangkok, where the 2006 movement to oust Thaksin was centered.last_img read more

Nine injured when horse breaks loose

first_imgSACRAMENTO – Six children and three adults were injured Thursday at a Sacramento school when a horse on display for the students got spooked and ran through a crowd.Authorities said the horse was spooked by children who were shouting and waving metallic gold streamers during a jog-a-thon being held to raise money for Bradshaw Christian School. The horse bolted into the crowd of about 100 students, parents and teachers, dragging an adult behind. The nine who were injured were taken to area hospitals with minor to moderate injuries. Randall Williams, a school official, said none of the injuries was considered serious. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREOregon Ducks football players get stuck on Disney ride during Rose Bowl eventThe school has about 740 students from preschool through 11th grade. The horse had been brought to the school by a parent to be petted by the children and was in a makeshift corral in a corner of the field when it escaped from its owner. The parent eventually was able to capture the horse. – Associated Press 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

GAA: NAOMH COLUMBA GAA NOTES

first_imgNaomh Columba 09.08.2011Well done to our under 14 lads on winning last Friday’s southern divisional final, overcoming Killybegs in breathtaking style in Mountcharles. Final score: Naomh Columba 6.03 Na Cealla Beaga 3.05. They now face St Michaels in the county semi final, set for Friday, August 19th. Venue and time to be confirmed. Best of luck to Gabriel, Andrew and the lads. Many thanks to everyone who came out to support our fundraiser on Sunday night last. A special word of thanks to the Glencolmcille Show Committee for the use of the marquee for the night, and in particular to Seamus J Mc Ginley, for his trojan work in the bar and Owen Doherty for the disco. Thank you to everyone who helped us out on both Saturday during the day, and Sunday night. There are too many people to mention in the notes, and we are very grateful to you – míle. Congratulations to the Seó Talmhaíochta committee, on organising another fantastic show on Saturday. The next club meeting will take place on Thursday week, August 18th, at 9.15pm. All club members are welcome. Seamus Kennedy is currently accepting orders for the Donegal v Dublin semi-final. Contact him on 074 9739049 as soon as possible please. Níor bhaineadh lotto na seachtaine seo caite. B’iad na huimhreacha a tarraingíodh ná:7-8-9-12.  Duaiseanna Aitheantais: €50 Jimmy Byrne , Clogher. €30 Mick Gallagher, c/o Anna Byrne, Teellin. €20 Martin Cunningham, Gannew. €20 Mary Doherty, Rannakilla.€20 John Murphy, Ballard. Lotto na seachtaine seo €4400GAA: NAOMH COLUMBA GAA NOTES was last modified: August 9th, 2011 by gregShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:GAA: NAOMH COLUMBA GAA NOTESGLENCOLMCILLE GAAlast_img read more

For the record

first_img AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBlues bury Kings early with four first-period goals 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! A story Friday misquoted Los Angeles school board member David Tokofsky in regard to a comment he made about Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa’s push for authority over local schools. Tokofsky referred to the mayor’s growing up in the City Terrace neighborhood rather than calling him a city terrorista. last_img read more

Women’s Basketball Routs Maine, 94-62

first_imgDrake’s hot shooting continued as Hittner ended with 21 first-half points and Rhine joined her in double-digits with 12. The Bulldogs finished 45.5 percent from beyond the arc and 50.0 percent from the floor. Drake controlled the paint with a 42-16 advantage and a 41-16 advantage on the glass. The Bulldogs converted 18 second-chance points. Their bench scored a season-high 34. Becca Hittner scored a season-high 30 points for Drake (5-2). Hittner blistered the nets making 9-of-12 shots and matched her career-high with five three-pointers. Sara Rhine added 15 points, Maggie Bair tallied a career-best 13 and Kierra Collier chipped in 10. Maine (2-5) was led in scoring by Maddy Mcvicar who finished with 11 points. vs. Maine 11/30/2019 – Watch Live Next Game: Story Links Full Schedule Roster Photo Gallery Live Stats 1350 ESPN Des Moines FloHoops $ After halftime, Maine pulled within 14 points midway through the third, but Drake countered with a 6-0 run and later led by 15 at the end of the quarter. However, Sarah Beth Gueldner drilled a three-pointer for the Bulldogs’ first points of the fourth quarter. The teams traded baskets until Bair started an 11-0 run with a layup and the run was capped by Maggie Negaard’s three. Drake would lead by as 35 points on its way to defeating Maine for the first time in three meetings. Gueldner set a new career-best with nine points on a career-high three three-pointers. PDF Box Score Preview HTML Box Score After a tough shooting performance against the Boilermakers, the Bulldogs bounced back going an impressive 33-of-59 (55.9 percent) from the floor. After making just one three against Purdue, Drake made 11 against the Black Bears. The Bulldogs grabbed an early 7-2 lead behind four free throws by Hittner and a three by Brenni Rose, which forced a quick Black Bears’ timeout. In the first quarter, Hittner knocked down all three of her three-pointers and finished with 13 points to help Drake lead 25-15. She was one of six Bulldogs to score in the opening period. ESTERO, Fla. – Following a tough loss to Purdue Friday night, the Drake University women’s basketball routed Maine, 94-62, Saturday, Nov. 30 afternoon on the second day of the Gulf Coast Showcase. Auburn and Drake will meet for just the third time on Sunday at 12:30 p.m. in the fifth-place championship game. The Tigers hold a 2-0 advantage after they held off the Bulldogs, 85-80, in the last matchup on Dec. 21, 2016 at the Tulane Classic in New Orleans. Print Friendly Versionlast_img read more

Reversing Land Act legacy ‘key to NDP’

first_img21 June 2013 Correcting the lasting effects of the Natives Land Act of 1913 is a crucial component of South Africa’s National Development Plan (NDP), says President Jacob Zuma. Passed by the Union of South Africa in 1913, the Natives Land Act gave the right to own the biggest parcel of land in South Africa to whites, while blacks, in the words of former African National Congress secretary-general Sol Plaatjie, had to be content with being pariahs in the land of their birth. Zuma was speaking at a gala dinner in Cape Town on Thursday night to mark the centenary of the passing of the Natives Land Act. He said it was an occasion for optimism.Up to us to ‘do a great right’ “The reality is that these days are behind us. A great wrong was done, and now it is up to us to follow up by doing a great right. We are now in charge of our own destiny. We have achieved a successful transition to democracy. We have a model Constitution, based on fairness.” But he said South Africa still had to reverse the dreadful pattern of poverty and landlessness – “the havoc created by the Natives Land Act”. “Correcting the consequences of this Act is a critical cog in the wheel of state – it is a crucial component in the National Development Plan. There can be no successful national development without accompanying rural development and land reform.” He remarked it was good that there was still co-operation on this matter in South Africa and that the land question was being treated with sensitivity. The Cabinet approved the Restitution of Land Rights Amendment Bill for publication and public comment in May 2013. In addition, the National Assembly recently approved the Special Planning and Land Use Management Bill which is now before the National Council of Provinces.National support needed These two Bills would help to reverse the process. “But, as I said earlier, success will require national support,” Zuma said. South Africa’s National Development Plan aims to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030. Among other things, it projects what the agricultural sector should look like in 30 years’ time. “In this case, it is important to stress that land reform is not just about how much land is given back to claimants, but should include skills transfer,” Zuma said, adding that claimants should be empowered to use land productively for job creation, food security and attracting young people to farming. The government would provide better incentives for commercial farmers who were willing and capable of mentoring smallholder farmers. Adequate post-settlement support to new landowners would also be given so that land continued to be productive. “We call on all South Africans to commemorate this landmark, with a view to correcting the wrongs of the past and to reinforce reconciliation. We urge the public to participate in the process of improving land redistribution and reform to reverse the impact of the 1913 Act. We call on the public to engage in a meaningful debate about the acceleration of land restitution, within our constitutional framework.”Settlers’ ‘original sin’ Zuma called the 1913 Natives Land Act “the original sin” of those who came to settle in South Africa. He added that the apartheid government, which had succeeded the Union Government, had from 1948 relocated black people into impoverished homelands and poorly serviced townships. “Since they could no longer provide food security for themselves and their families, they were forced to look for work far away from their families. The Act marked the beginning of socio-economic challenges the country is facing today such as landlessness, poverty and inequality.” The Natives Land Act was repealed in 1991, but its legacy was still being felt today, almost 20 years after South Africa became a democratic country, Zuma said. When a democratic government was elected in 1994, it committed itself, in accordance with the rule of law, to address the inequalities of land ownership and “particularly to those dispossessed as a result of it. “Land dispossession is no doubt the fundamental violation of the rights of the indigenous people and the original sin, so to speak, of those who came to settle in the country.” The government has undertaken to restore 30 percent of the land to black people by 2014. Since 1994, when the first democratically elected government came into power, the government has been addressing land reform through restitution, redistribution and tenure reform. The national policy of reconciliation and nation-building also guided this process. “As we are all aware, progress has however been slow, and we have admitted that the 2014 redistribution target will not be met,” Zuma said, adding: “Only 6.7-million hectares of land have so far been transferred through redistribution and restitution.” Source: SAnews.gov.zalast_img read more

NFU public comments strongly endorse fair practice rules

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest On behalf of nearly 200,000 family farm and ranch members, National Farmers Union (NFU) President Roger Johnson submitted public comments to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) yesterday, advocating for the agency to finalize the Farmer Fair Practices Rules. The rules would provide family farmers and ranchers with protections against anti-competitive and abusive practices.“Family farmers and ranchers are operating in an extremely consolidated agricultural marketplace, where lack of competition provides the major meat companies with tremendous power,” said Johnson. “Farmer Fair Practices Rules provide family farmers and ranchers with the most basic of protections against egregious and anti-competitive practices. They are long overdue and we urge the USDA to finalize them as soon as possible.”In his comments, Johnson highlighted the extreme consolidation in the livestock and poultry sectors, noting that just four giant meatpacking companies control 85 percent of the beef market, 74% of the pork market, and more than half of the market for poultry.“Due to a lack of competition across the agricultural sector, farmers are subject to both the bargaining power of sellers of agricultural inputs and the bargaining power of buyers of the products farmers grow,” Johnson said.Johnson said that this bargaining power has allowed processors and integrators to institutionalize many unfair and abusive practices, particularly in the poultry and pork industries.“The development of contract farming as the model in the poultry and hog sector has institutionalized the ‘monopsony/monopoly relations between farm and agribusiness and the ability of the latter to capture value by the producer through price manipulation.’  The two parties that negotiate the contract are not equal. This asymmetrical power results in undue influence over contract farmers,” he said. “The status quo system of indentured servitude by contract growers who are subject to increasingly offensive demands by integrators is simply unacceptable.”Johnson noted that the Farmer Fair Practices Rules update the Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921, which was passed to protect competition in the meatpacking industry.“Congress passed the Act with recognition that the previous antitrust acts did not adequately protect farmers and consumers from the monopolistic practices of the meatpacking industry,” Johnson said. “The Act set out to regulate meatpackers engaging in unfair or deceptive practices that harm individual farmers.“Over the last few decades, judicial decisions have weakened the original act, providing farmers and ranchers with less protection in a more challenging marketplace. These rules will go a long way to make sure that farmers and ranchers can continue to operate with basic protections under the law.”last_img read more

Weekend Reading: Guy Kawasaki Author Spotlight

first_imgTop Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting chris cameron Tags:#start#startups Related Posts A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…center_img Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Highly recognized Silicon Valley venture capitalist Guy Kawasaki is not only the author of the inspiringly titled blog How to Change the World, but he has also penned nine books on various business and marketing topics. After attending college at Stanford and receiving his MBA from UCLA, Kawasaki cut his business teeth at a jewelry manufacturer called Nova before eventually being bitten by the “computer bug.” After a brief stint at an educational software company, Kawasaki was hired by Apple where he was responsible for marketing the original Macintosh computer in 1984. After the success seen at Apple in the mid-80s, Kawasaki left and started his own software and database development companies, Fog City Software and ACIUS. Following a short return to Apple in 1995 “to maintain and rejuvenate the Macintosh cult,” Kawasaki started Garage Technology Ventures, an early-stage seed fund, with Craig Johnson and Rich Karlgaard in 1997. Today, Kawaski is the Managing Director at Garage, and the co-founder of Alltop, which he describes as “an online magazine rack”. Of Kawasaki’s nine books, perhaps the most lauded has been 2004’s The Art of the Start: The Time-Tested, Battle-Hardened Guide for Anyone Starting Anything, which is an essential read for any entrepreneur. Kawasaki fills the chapters of his startup handbook with GIST, or Great Ideas for Starting Things, as well as tips on marketing, branding, customer development, pitching, recruiting and any of a number of valuable lessons.More recently, Kawasaki published Reality Check: The Irreverent Guide to Outsmarting, Outmanaging, and Outmarketing Your Competition, a book focused on a similar vein as 1996’s How to Drive Your Competition Crazy: Creating Disruption for Fun and Profit. The book’s description says its time for a reality check “if the two most popular words in your company are partner and strategic, and partner has become a verb, and strategic is used to describe decisions and activities that don’t make sense.”Kawasaki has tuned his storied marketing history into a successful venture capital and writing career. These books and others, including Rules for Revolutionaries and The Macintosh Way, have provided excellent resources for entrepreneurs and startups, and are must-reads for anyone starting any kind of business.last_img read more

The Case for More Ethanol

first_imgMore ethanol, fewer greenhouse gas emissionsThe Obama administration’s fuel economy rule is one of the pillars of the president’s climate legacy, but it does not take into account the carbon content of the fuels in use. Crediting the life-cycle carbon footprint of fuels would provide an economic incentive for ethanol blends and encourage farming practices that enrich the soil by storing carbon: Carbon credits could be based on an annual field-level certification process.Even without those benefits included, the use of “mid-level” blends — up to 30% ethanol — would reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the new fuel economy standards by at least 10%.In addition, higher ethanol blends are rich in octane, and higher-octane fuels enable automakers to increase the “compression ratio” of an engine without damage from knock — creating more power with less fuel. (Race cars in the IndyCar series use blends of 85% ethanol.) Mid-level blends would thus make it easier for automakers to achieve the 2025 fuel economy targets (and go beyond them after 2025), while at the same time delivering more greenhouse gas reductions.U.S. automakers have advocated for higher octane in fuels while remaining neutral as to the octane source. Designing cars to accept mid-level ethanol blends with a higher compression ratio is a simple engineering task, and many cars that require premium fuel today would require little or no modification. A senior Mercedes-Benz engineer said such a combination would be attractive to car buyers because it would provide “ridiculous power and good fuel economy.” The Case Against More EthanolThe Downside of Low Gas PricesHouses Versus CarsCorn Ethanol: The Rise and Fall of a Political ForceAs Electric Cars Stall, A Move to Greener Trucks and BusesEthanol Under Fire Many obstacles remain to more ethanol useThe obstacles to this growth, however, are formidable. Once gasoline was established as the only way to move a car, the petroleum industry had a complete monopoly on transportation fuel, reflected in vehicle design and refueling infrastructure. (Electric vehicles may provide a viable competitor one day, but such a fundamental shift in American habits will take a generation or more to achieve. And vehicles that run on electricity will only be as clean as the source of the electricity.)The successful phase-out of leaded gasoline in the 1990s suggests that the same could be done with aromatics, and the fuel economy rule provides a ripe opportunity. The mid-term evaluation required by the rule will begin with a draft technical assessment this June and conclude with a final rule in April 2018. It will consider a wide range of factors, including developments in powertrain technology, consumer acceptance, and trends in fuel prices. Missing from this list, however, is an assessment of other fuel choices.Engineers in the U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories are examining a large number of different fuel formulations to see which is optimal; clearly, increased levels of aromatics would be unacceptable. A mid-level ethanol blend is the best available alternative today, and the EPA should consider this in its mid-term review.For automakers to demonstrate the benefits of higher-octane fuels, they need a green light from the EPA to proceed with a mid-level ethanol-blend test fuel that could become the standard for the car designs of the next decade. To be ready for widespread use in 2025, the transition of fuels, vehicles, and refueling infrastructure must begin very soon. The benefits of these blends for octane and performance justify this action on the basis of reduced carbon pollution alone. Beyond that, it is incontrovertible that substituting ethanol for toxic aromatic hydrocarbons will have benefits for public health. Rather than regulating aromatics directly, EPA could simply displace them by encouraging higher ethanol blends.These benefits to climate and health have emerged through a combination of new practices and new research. The EPA should embrace the opportunity of its mid-term review to support higher-ethanol fuels and the myriad advantages they offer. Today, U.S. sales of ethanol have grown to nearly 15 billion gallons a year, due to the near-universal use of E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline) to fuel the nation’s cars and light trucks. We maintain that in the U.S., the principal reasons for concern about ethanol — the use of a food crop (corn) as a feedstock and the environmental impacts of high-production agriculture — are no longer valid.New studies show that, thanks to ever-improving agricultural productivity, the food-versus-fuel debate appears to be over, and the verdict is in: There is no conflict. Increased demand for corn has not dramatically increased the cost of grain. Only a small share of corn is grown for human consumption, and global food prices are more affected by the cost of petroleum than they are by the price of corn. If anything, ethanol, by reducing the demand for gasoline, may lower the price of food by lowering the price of oil.More corn is grown for animal feed than any other use. The ethanol process takes only the starch from the corn and leaves a high-protein byproduct — dried distillers grains — for animal feed, so cattle are not short-changed by ethanol production, either. Farming practices have changedAs for the environmental impact of corn, a quiet revolution — aimed at restoring the health of the land — has been taking place on American farms. The iconic image of endless fields of bare, furrowed soil ready for planting in the spring is no longer the norm. More and more farmers are choosing to leave the summer’s residues — corn stalks, for example — on their fields after harvest, injecting seeds into the undisturbed soil in the spring. Some are planting winter cover crops to further stabilize and enrich the land.These practices have many names — “no-till” or “low-till” or “precision” agriculture, for example — but they are reversing decades of soil depletion and are turning cropland into a carbon sink. In the process, they enrich the soil with natural carbon and reduce the need for chemicals and water. According to the most recent Census of Agriculture, 62% of U.S. cropland (173 million acres) was farmed in 2012 with conservation tillage or no-till practices.Farming practices have changed, with more farmers choosing to leave the residue of summer crops, such as corn stalks, on their fields after harvest.A recent nine-year study conducted in Nebraska by the U.S. Agricultural Research Service found that “no-till” corn increased the amount of carbon in the soil by nearly a ton per acre, per year. The researchers were surprised to find more than half of this captured carbon one to five feet below the surface: Corn has deep and extensive roots, but most previous studies sampled for carbon only to a depth of 18 inches.The carbon footprint of ethanol has also been reduced, thanks to greater efficiency on the farm and in the production process. According to a team at Argonne National Laboratory, which for the past two decades has assessed the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from fuels — from extraction and production to use in a vehicle, taking into account indirect impacts on land use elsewhere — ethanol today results in 37% less carbon pollution per mile than gasoline. Adding in the now-uncounted carbon benefits of soil sequestration could potentially yield a zero-carbon fuel. At the same time, gasoline is becoming more carbon-intensive because of the increasing use of tar sands and other oils that are hard to extract and process. Aromatics used in gasoline are neurotoxinsCurrently, oil refiners supply octane through a distilled component of petroleum called aromatics — hydrocarbon chains with a stable benzene ring that resist combustion and prevent engine knock. These aromatics, mostly toluene and xylene, are neurotoxins; they comprise on average 25% of every gallon of gasoline, and their emissions are implicated in a variety of serious health impacts, especially affecting the heart and lungs.A 2013 assessment by the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis estimated that exposure to fine-particle pollution from aromatics in gasoline results in 3,800 premature deaths per year and a total social cost of more than $28 billion annually.Most worrisome of all are the secondary pollutants that form in the atmosphere after combustion, especially PAHs — polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons — which are carried along on particles so tiny that, once inhaled, they can penetrate the bloodstream and reach the brain. A careful long-term assessment of women in New York City found a correlation between exposure to PAHs during pregnancy and reduced IQ in their children — an effect similar to that of airborne lead.The study’s leader, Frederica Perera, director of the Columbia University Center for Children’s Environmental Health, calls PAHs “carcinogenic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic, and endocrine disruptors.” The use of mid-level ethanol blends could reduce the content of aromatics in gasoline by 60%.center_img For almost as long as there have been cars, gasoline has been the dominant fuel in transportation. But for a host of reasons — environmental, climate change, public health, and economic — the time has come to consider mixing higher blends of biofuels with gasoline. And in the United States, the best source for that biofuel today, surprisingly, is corn.Such a suggestion will surely elicit cries of protest from the environmental community: A few years ago there was a flood of articles and reports about the allegedly disastrous ecological impacts of growing crops for biofuels. But we believe that ethanol has been unfairly stigmatized in the conventional wisdom and that the reasons for concern about corn ethanol deserve reexamination.Here is a link to a rebuttal to this column: “The Case Against More Ethanol.”In the U.S., now is the time for that second look. In June, the Environmental Protection Agency will begin a mid-course evaluation of President Obama’s ambitious fuel economy target, established in 2012, to have cars and light trucks reach 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Increasing the ethanol blend in gasoline from the current 10% to roughly 30% would not only help boost gas mileage, it would significantly cut U.S. carbon emissions and air pollution. And because higher-ethanol blends greatly reduce the need to use toxic additives — known as aromatics — to gasoline, increased reliance on ethanol would sharply cut the emissions of deadly fine-particle pollutants. RELATED ARTICLES Timothy Wirth, formerly a member of the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives from Colorado, is vice chair of the United Nations Foundation. C. Boyden Gray is the founding partner of the law firm Boyden Gray & Associates. This post originally appeared at Yale Environment 360. Lower demand for oilEthanol’s economic value has been widely mischaracterized and misunderstood. Ethanol does have less energy content per gallon than gasoline, leading some to say that consumers get a bad bargain from its use. In mid-level blends, however, the improved efficiency made possible by ethanol almost completely compensates for its lower energy content, evening out the economic equation.A more powerful economic benefit for consumers comes from weakened demand for oil. Much has been made of the effect of shale oil from North Dakota on world oil markets, but before it came along, the widespread use of 10% ethanol blends already had displaced a similar amount of oil, saving consumers nearly $1 per gallon of gasoline, based on a number of economic estimates. That has meant $100 billion per year for U.S. consumers.Over the last decade, ethanol production more than tripled, even as federal tax credits for its use and import tariffs were eliminated. This rapid growth in demand contributed to a temporary price spike for corn. But corn prices have since retreated to recent historical norms, putting the lie to the notion that using crops for fuel will make food unaffordable.The reason is clear: One of American farmers’ most recurrent problems historically has been overproduction. The combination of favorable soils and climate in the Midwest, together with the astonishing innovation that continually increases yields per acre, means that the acreage planted in major crops has remained within a narrow band (315 to 325 million acres) for the last 15 years, despite the increased demand for corn. Indeed, farmers need growing markets just to keep up with their own rising productivity.With a sensible ramp-up, yield increases alone could meet additional demand for ethanol in mid-level blends, using land already in production. To be ready for widespread use in 2025, the transition of fuels, vehicles, and refueling infrastructure must begin very soon.last_img read more